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Friday, February 22, 2013

[LeetCode] Word Ladder II, Solution


Given two words (start and end), and a dictionary, find all shortest transformation sequence(s) from start to end, such that:
  1. Only one letter can be changed at a time
  2. Each intermediate word must exist in the dictionary
For example,
Given:
start = "hit"
end = "cog"
dict = ["hot","dot","dog","lot","log"]
Return
  [
    ["hit","hot","dot","dog","cog"],
    ["hit","hot","lot","log","cog"]
  ]
Note:
  • All words have the same length.
  • All words contain only lowercase alphabetic characters.
» Solve this problem

[Thoughts]
解法一,递归
1. 首先生成不同字符串之间的跳转函数(Func[A][B] means how many char need changed if A transfer to B),比如{"a", "b", "c"}
      a        b       c
a    0        1       1
b    1        0       1
c    1        1        0
2. 有了转移方程之后,直接递归就好了。

在实现中,由于unordered_set不支持[]操作,所以我额外拷贝到vector里面来做(没有使用hash),浪费了多余的时间。可以过小数据,但是过不了大数据。

1:  int DiffDict[1000][1000];  
2:  int visited[1000];  
3:  void findtran(string& start, string& end, vector<string> &dict, int curIndex,  
4:  int step, int& min, vector<vector<string>>& result, vector<string>& candidate)  
5:  {  
6:       if(start == end)  
7:       {  
8:            if(step < min)  
9:            {  
10:                 min = step;  
11:                 result.clear();  
12:                 result.push_back(candidate);  
13:            }  
14:            else if(step == min)  
15:            {  
16:                 result.push_back(candidate);  
17:            }       
18:            return;  
19:       }  
20:       for(int i =1; i< dict.size(); i++)  
21:       {  
22:            if(visited[i] ==1 || DiffDict[curIndex][i] !=1)  
23:                 continue;  
24:            visited[i] =1;  
25:            candidate.push_back(dict[i]);  
26:            findtran(dict[i], end, dict, i, step+1, min, result, candidate);  
27:            candidate.pop_back();  
28:            visited[i] =0;  
29:       }  
30:  }  
31:  vector<vector<string>> findLadders(string start, string end, unordered_set<string> &dict) {  
32:       vector<vector<string>> result;  
33:       assert(dict.size() < 1000);  
34:       vector<string> dictV;  
35:       //copy data to vector since unordered_set not support []  
36:       for(unordered_set<string>::iterator it = dict.begin(); it!=dict.end(); ++it)  
37:       {  
38:            dictV.push_back(*it);  
39:       }  
40:       //add start as head  
41:       vector<string>::iterator it = std::find(dictV.begin(), dictV.end(),start);  
42:       if(it!= dictV.end())  
43:       {  
44:            dictV.erase(it);  
45:       }  
46:       dictV.insert(dictV.begin(),start);  
47:       visited[0] =1;  
48:       //add end as tail  
49:       it = std::find(dictV.begin(), dictV.end(),end);  
50:       if(it!= dictV.end())  
51:       {  
52:            dictV.erase(it);  
53:       }  
54:       dictV.push_back(end);  
55:       //preprocess trans metrics  
56:       for(int i=0; i<dictV.size(); i++)  
57:       {  
58:            for(int j=i; j<dictV.size(); j++)  
59:            {  
60:                 int diff=0;  
61:                 for(int k=0; k< it->size(); k++)  
62:                 {  
63:                      if(dictV[i][k] != dictV[j][k]) diff++;  
64:                 }  
65:                 DiffDict[i][j] = diff;  
66:                 DiffDict[j][i] = diff;  
67:            }  
68:       }  
69:       int step =0;  
70:       int min = INT_MAX;  
71:       vector<string> candidate;  
72:       candidate.push_back(start);  
73:       findtran(start, end, dictV, 0,step, min, result, candidate);  
74:       return result;  
75:  }  


考虑到题目已经提示了应该使用unordered_set来做,应该有基于hash的解法。
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