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Sunday, October 25, 2015

[Leetcode] Product of Array Except Self, Solution

Given an array of n integers where n > 1, nums, return an array output such that output[i] is equal to the product of all the elements of nums except nums[i].
Solve it without division and in O(n).
For example, given [1,2,3,4], return [24,12,8,6].
Follow up:
Could you solve it with constant space complexity? (Note: The output array does not count as extra space for the purpose of space complexity analysis.)
[Thoughts]
一般这种题都可以分解成若干子问题来解决。As defined, 
output[i] is equal to the product of all the elements of nums except nums[i].
简单的说
    output[i] =  { i 前面的数的乘积}  X  { i 后面的数的乘积}
问题就解决了,首先从前往后扫描数组一遍,对每一个i,得到{i 前面的数的乘积}(可以称做output_before),然后在从后往前扫描数组一遍,获得 { i 后面的数的乘积}(可以称做output_after)。 将两数相乘即为所求。
举个例子(如下图),nums = {1,2,3,4}, 第一遍,从前往后扫描一遍,得到的output_before = {1, 1, 2, 6}. 从后往前扫描一遍,得到的output_after = {24, 12, 4, 1}.
那么  output [i] = output_before[i] * output_after[i],   output = {24, 12, 8, 6}

[Code]
1:  class Solution {  
2:  public:  
3:    vector<int> productExceptSelf(vector<int>& nums) {  
4:      vector<int> products;  
5:      if(nums.size() == 0) return products;  
6:      int product = 1;  
7:      products.push_back(1);  
8:      for(int i =1; i< nums.size(); i++) {  
9:        product *= nums[i-1];  
10:        products.push_back(product);  
11:      }  
12:      product = 1;  
13:      for(int i =nums.size()-2; i>=0; i--) {  
14:        product = product * nums[i+1];  
15:        products[i] = products[i] * product;   
16:      }  
17:      return products;  
18:    }  
19:  };  

github: https://github.com/codingtmd/leetcode/blob/master/src/Product%20of%20Array%20Except%20Self.cpp








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